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PLoS One. 2016 Apr 12;11(4):e0152922. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152922. eCollection 2016.

Modulation of Macrophage Polarization and HMGB1-TLR2/TLR4 Cascade Plays a Crucial Role for Cardiac Remodeling in Senescence-Accelerated Prone Mice.

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Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603, Japan.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX 77054, United States of America.
Division of Hypertension and Vascular Research, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, United States of America.
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, United States of America.
Basic studies on second generation functional foods, NUPALS Liaison R/D promotion division, Higashijima 265-1, Akiha-ku, Niigata, Japan.
Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Bosuo Road #1035 Jingyue Economic Development District, Changchun, RP China.


The aim of this study was to investigate the role of macrophage polarization in aging heart. Macrophage differentiation is pathogenically linked to many inflammatory and immune disorders. It is often preceded by myocardial inflammation, which is characterized by increased cardiac damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that senescence accelerated-prone (SAMP8) mice cardiac tissue would develop macrophage polarization compared with senescence-resistant control (SAMR1) mice. Both SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice were sacrificed when they became six month old. We evaluated, histo-pathological changes and modifications in protein expression by Western blotting and immuno-histochemical staining for M1 and M2 macrophage markers, high mobility group protein (HMG)B1 and its cascade proteins, pro-inflammatory factors and inflammatory cytokines in cardiac tissue. We observed significant upregulation of HMGB1, toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, nuclear factor (NF)κB p65, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and M1 like macrophage specific marker cluster of differentiation (CD)68 expressions in SAMP8 heart. In contrast, M2 macrophage specific marker CD36, and IL-10 expressions were down-regulated in SAMP8 mice. The results from the study demonstrated that, HMGB1-TLR2/TLR4 signaling cascade and induction of phenotypic switching to M1 macrophage polarization in SAMP8 mice heart would be one of the possible reasons behind the cardiac dysfunction and thus it could become an important therapeutic target to improve the age related cardiac dysfunction.

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