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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jun 20;60(7):3913-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02831-15. Print 2016 Jul.

Paradoxical Effect of Polymyxin B: High Drug Exposure Amplifies Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA The New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics & Life Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA btsuji@buffalo.edu.
2
Laboratory for Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Australia.
3
Laboratory for Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA The New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics & Life Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.
4
Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Australia.
5
Department of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
6
Laboratory for Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA Department of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
7
Laboratory for Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Abstract

Administering polymyxin antibiotics in a traditional fashion may be ineffective against Gram-negative ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens. Here, we explored increasing the dose intensity of polymyxin B against two strains of Acinetobacter baumannii in the hollow-fiber infection model. The following dosage regimens were simulated for polymyxin B (t1/2 = 8 h): non-loading dose (1.43 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h [q12h]), loading dose (2.22 mg/kg q12h for 1 dose and then 1.43 mg/kg q12h), front-loading dose (3.33 mg/kg q12h for 1 dose followed by 1.43 mg/kg q12h), burst (5.53 mg/kg for 1 dose), and supraburst (18.4 mg/kg for 1 dose). Against both A. baumannii isolates, a rapid initial decline in the total population was observed within the first 6 h of polymyxin exposure, whereby greater polymyxin B exposure resulted in greater maximal killing of -1.25, -1.43, -2.84, -2.84, and -3.40 log10 CFU/ml within the first 6 h. Unexpectedly, we observed a paradoxical effect whereby higher polymyxin B exposures dramatically increased resistant subpopulations that grew on agar containing up to 10 mg/liter of polymyxin B over 336 h. High drug exposure also proliferated polymyxin-dependent growth. A cost-benefit pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship between 24-h killing and 336-h resistance was explored. The intersecting point, where the benefit of bacterial killing was equal to the cost of resistance, was an fAUC0-24 (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h for the free, unbound fraction of drug) of 38.5 mg · h/liter for polymyxin B. Increasing the dose intensity of polymyxin B resulted in amplification of resistance, highlighting the need to utilize polymyxins as part of a combination against high-bacterial-density A. baumannii infections.

PMID:
27067330
PMCID:
PMC4914656
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.02831-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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