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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jun 20;60(7):3921-33. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02927-15. Print 2016 Jul.

Colistin and Polymyxin B Dosage Regimens against Acinetobacter baumannii: Differences in Activity and the Emergence of Resistance.

Author information

1
Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
2
Laboratory of Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.
3
Laboratory of Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
4
Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), Parkville, Victoria, Australia Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.
5
Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), Parkville, Victoria, Australia Roger.Nation@Monash.edu.

Abstract

Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are a major public health problem, and polymyxins are often the last line of therapy for recalcitrant infections by such isolates. The pharmacokinetics of the two clinically used polymyxins, polymyxin B and colistin, differ considerably, since colistin is administered as an inactive prodrug that undergoes slow conversion to colistin. However, the impact of these substantial pharmacokinetic differences on bacterial killing and resistance emergence is poorly understood. We assessed clinically relevant polymyxin B and colistin dosage regimens against one reference and three clinical A. baumannii strains in a dynamic one-compartment in vitro model. A new mechanism-based pharmacodynamic model was developed to describe and predict the drug concentrations and viable counts of the total and resistant populations. Rapid attainment of target concentrations was shown to be critical for polymyxin-induced bacterial killing. All polymyxin B regimens achieved peak concentrations of at least 1 mg/liter within 1 h and caused ≥4 log10 killing at 1 h. In contrast, the slow rise of colistin concentrations to 3 mg/liter over 48 h resulted in markedly reduced bacterial killing. A significant (4 to 6 log10 CFU/ml) amplification of resistant bacterial populations was common to all dosage regimens. The developed mechanism-based model explained the observed bacterial killing, regrowth, and resistance. The model also implicated adaptive polymyxin resistance as a key driver of bacterial regrowth and predicted the amplification of preexisting, highly polymyxin-resistant bacterial populations following polymyxin treatment. Antibiotic combination therapies seem the most promising option for minimizing the emergence of polymyxin resistance.

PMID:
27067324
PMCID:
PMC4914682
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.02927-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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