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Front Microbiol. 2016 Mar 30;7:424. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00424. eCollection 2016.

Further Spread of bla NDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China.

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Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine Shanghai, China.
Department of Critical Care Medicine and Respiratory Intensive Care Unit, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine Shanghai, China.
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine Shanghai, China.


One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of bla NDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, bla NDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the bla NDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-bla NDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of bla NDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of bla NDM.


Enterobacteriaceae; IncX3 type plasmid; NDM-5; carbapenemase; epidemiology

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