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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016 May;27(5):304-318. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2016.03.004. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Analogs and their Effects on Pancreatic Islets.

Author information

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain. Electronic address: eva.tuduri@usc.es.
2
Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain; Department of Physiology, CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain.
3
Instituto de Bioingeniería and CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain.
4
Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain; Department of Physiology, CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain. Electronic address: ruben.nogueiras@usc.es.

Abstract

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts many actions that improve glycemic control. GLP-1 stimulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protects β cells, while its extrapancreatic effects include cardioprotection, reduction of hepatic glucose production, and regulation of satiety. Although an appealing antidiabetic drug candidate, the rapid degradation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) means that its therapeutic use is unfeasible, and this prompted the development of two main GLP-1 therapies: long-acting GLP-1 analogs and DPP-4 inhibitors. In this review, we focus on the pancreatic effects exerted by current GLP-1 derivatives used to treat diabetes. Based on the results from in vitro and in vivo studies in humans and animal models, we describe the specific actions of GLP-1 analogs on the synthesis, processing, and secretion of insulin, islet morphology, and β cell proliferation and apoptosis.

KEYWORDS:

GLP-1; diabetes; glycaemic control; insulin; β cells

PMID:
27062006
DOI:
10.1016/j.tem.2016.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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