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J Nurs Scholarsh. 2016 May;48(3):312-21. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12208. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Simulation in Nursing Education-International Perspectives and Contemporary Scope of Practice.

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Xi Omicron, Associate Professor and Director-Community of Practice, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, Bentley Perth, Australia (previously Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney).
Associate Professor in Nursing and Midwifery Simulation, Nursing and Midwifery Simulation Lead, UWE Learning and Teaching Fellow, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
Post Doctor, Department of Health Studies, Faculty of Social Science, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
Director-International, Faculty of Health, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.



This article provides insights and perspectives from four experienced educators about their approaches to developing, delivering, and evaluating impactful simulation learning experiences for undergraduate nurses. A case study format has been used to illustrate the commonalities and differences of where simulation has been positioned within curricula, with examples of specialized clinical domains and others with a more generic focus. The importance of pedagogy in developing and delivering simulations is highlighted in each case study. A range of learning theories appropriate for healthcare simulations are a reminder of the commonalities across theories and that no one theory can account for the engaging and impactful learning that simulation elicits.


Creating meaningful and robust learning experiences through simulation can benefit students' performance in subsequent clinical practice. The ability to rehearse particular clinical scenarios, which may be difficult to otherwise achieve, assists students in anticipating likely patient trajectories and understanding how to respond to patients, relatives, and others in the healthcare team.


Holistic practice; medical surgical; mental health; pedagogy; simulation; undergraduate nurses

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