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Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2016 Apr 9;30(1). pii: /j/ijamh.2018.30.issue-1/ijamh-2015-0125/ijamh-2015-0125.xml. doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2015-0125.

Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

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PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam, Phone: +6738987060.
PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam.
Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam.


Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.


adolescents; behaviour; saliva; smoking; testosterone


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