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Brain Res Bull. 2016 Jul;125:30-43. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.04.002. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Ginsenoside Rb1 as a neuroprotective agent: A review.

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Neurobiology Laboratory, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA.
Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia.
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Chemistry, ICET, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, CEP 78060-900, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil.
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:


Ginsenosides represent the major bioactive components of ginseng. These triterpenoid saponins have been shown to exert numerous beneficial effects on the human body. Recent evidences suggest that ginsenosides may be useful for the management and treatment of several diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, numerous in vitro and in vivo models have shown that ginsenosides can modulate numerous pharmacological effects on the brain, including attenuation of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, maintenance of neurotransmitter balance, anti-apoptotic effects, and mitochondrial stabilization effects. Regulations of these pathophysiological mechanisms have been shown to improve cognitive function and protect the brain against several neurodegenerative diseases. This review will critically address the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of action of ginsenosides in the CNS, and particularly those associated with therapeutic efficacies in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and traumatic brain injury, and ischemia.


Alzheimer’s disease; Ginseng; Ginsenosides; Neurodegeneration; Parkinson’s disease

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