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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Aug;79:144-148. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.03.024. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

Trace elements in e-liquids - Development and validation of an ICP-MS method for the analysis of electronic cigarette refills.

Author information

1
Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, EA 4483 - IMPECS - IMPact de l'Environnement Chimique sur la Santé humaine, F-59000 Lille, France.
2
Centre Universitaire de Mesures et d'Analyses, Université de Lille 2, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques de Lille, 59006 Lille, France.
3
Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, EA 4483 - IMPECS - IMPact de l'Environnement Chimique sur la Santé humaine, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address: anne.garat-2@univ-lille2.fr.

Abstract

Electronic cigarette use has rapidly increased in recent years. In assessing their safety, and in view of coming regulations, trace elements (TE) are among the potentially toxic compounds required to be evaluated in electronic cigarette refill fluids ("e-liquids"). An analytical method using inductively coupled plasma with mass spectrometric detection (ICP-MS) was developed and rigorously validated in order to determine concentrations of 15 TE in 54 e-liquids from a French brand. Despite a significant matrix effect from the main e-liquid constituents, and difficulties related to the current lack of reference materials, our method demonstrated satisfactory linearity, precision and robustness, and permitted the quantification of low concentrations of these 15 elements: lower limits of quantification (LLQ) obtained were ≤4 ppb for all elements except for Ni, Cu and Zn (16 ppb, 20 ppb and 200 ppb, respectively). All TE concentrations in all tested samples were <510 ppb, mostly near or below the LLQs. This method is transposable and is timely for laboratories seeking to meet a prospective demand in light of current or future regulations.

KEYWORDS:

E-liquids; Electronic cigarettes; ICP-MS; Method validation; Trace elements

PMID:
27058761
DOI:
10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.03.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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