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Theriogenology. 2016 Aug;86(3):757-65. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.02.029. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

Cilostamide and forskolin treatment during pre-IVM improves preimplantation development of cloned embryos by influencing meiotic progression and gap junction communication in pigs.

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Laboratory of Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.
Division of Applied Animal Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.
Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea.
Laboratory of Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea; Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea. Electronic address:


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with the cAMP modulators cilostamide and/or forskolin during pre-IVM culture on meiotic progression, gap junction communication, intraoocyte cAMP level and glutathione content, embryonic development after parthenogenesis, and somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured for 24 hours in unsupplemented medium or media containing 20 μM cilostamide and/or 50 μM forskolin. After pre-IVM, oocytes were cultured for 41 to 44 hours in a standard IVM medium to induce oocyte maturation. When the nuclear status of oocytes was examined after pre-IVM for 24 hours, a higher (P < 0.01) proportion of oocytes treated with forskolin (85.5%) and cilostamide + forskolin (92.6%) remained at the germinal vesicle stage compared with untreated (20.6%) and cilostamide-treated oocytes (54.7%). cAMP level in pre-IVM oocytes was significantly increased by combined treatment with cilostamide + forskolin (21.38 fmol/oocyte) relative to the no pre-IVM control, no treatment, cilostamide, and forskolin groups (2.85, 1.88, 1.74, and 8.95 fmol/oocyte, respectively). Forskolin with or without cilostamide significantly maintained open-gap junction communication relative to no treatment. Blastocyst formation in parthenogenesis was significantly (P < 0.01) improved by forskolin (65.3%) relative to other treatments (28.3% to 48.1%). Supplementation of pre-IVM with dibutyryl cAMP showed similar blastocyst formation as forskolin treatment (61.1% and 61.0%, respectively). In somatic cell nuclear transfer, simultaneous treatment with cilostamide + forskolin significantly (P < 0.05) increased embryonic development to the blastocyst stage (42.9%) relative to the no pre-IVM, control, and cilostamide groups (32.3, 28.6, and 32.8%, respectively). The glutathione contents in pre-IVM oocytes were increased by no treatment, forskolin, and cilostamide + forskolin (1.38, 1.39, and 1.27 pixels/oocyte, respectively) compared with no pre-IVM and cilostamide (1.00 and 0.99 pixels/oocyte, respectively; P < 0.05). Our results reported that the meiotic progression of immature pig oocytes could be reversibly attenuated by cAMP, whereas treatment with cilostamide and forskolin during pre-IVM had positive effects on developmental competence of oocytes in pigs, probably by improving cytoplasmic maturation.


Cyclic AMP; Forskolin; Nuclear transfer; Oocyte maturation

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