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Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016 Apr 7;15:59. doi: 10.1186/s12933-016-0374-9.

Cohort profile: the German Diabetes Study (GDS).

Author information

1
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
2
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), München-Neuherberg, Germany.
3
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
4
Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
5
Public Health Unit, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
6
Institute for Clinical Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, Düsseldorf, Germany.
7
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research, German Diabetes Center at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Michael.Roden@ddz.uni-duesseldorf.de.
8
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), München-Neuherberg, Germany. Michael.Roden@ddz.uni-duesseldorf.de.
9
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Michael.Roden@ddz.uni-duesseldorf.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The German Diabetes Study (GDS) is a prospective longitudinal cohort study describing the impact of subphenotypes on the course of the disease. GDS aims at identifying prognostic factors and mechanisms underlying the development of related comorbidities.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:

The study comprises intensive phenotyping within 12 months after clinical diagnosis, at 5-year intervals for 20 years and annual telephone interviews in between. Dynamic tests, including glucagon, mixed meal, intravenous glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemic clamp tests, serve to assess beta-cell function and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and multinuclei spectroscopy allow quantifying whole-body fat distribution, tissue-specific lipid deposition and energy metabolism. Comprehensive analyses of microvascular (nerve, eye, kidney) and macrovascular (endothelial, cardiorespiratory) morphology and function enable identification and monitoring of comorbidities. The GDS biobank stores specimens from blood, stool, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skin for future analyses including multiomics, expression profiles and histology. Repeated questionnaires on socioeconomic conditions, patient-reported outcomes as quality of life, health-related behavior as physical activity and nutritional habits are a specific asset of GDS. This study will recruit 3000 patients and a group of humans without familiy history of diabetes. 237 type 1 and 456 type 2 diabetes patients have been already included.

KEYWORDS:

Beta cell function; Diabetes comorbidities; Insulin resistance; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Metabolic phenotyping

PMID:
27053136
PMCID:
PMC4823856
DOI:
10.1186/s12933-016-0374-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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