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Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2016 Jun;50(3):345-56. doi: 10.1007/s12016-016-8538-7.

The Bach Family of Transcription Factors: A Comprehensive Review.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
2
Department of Medical Cosmetology, Peace Hospital, Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China.
3
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA.
4
Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. qianlu5860@gmail.com.

Abstract

The transcription factors Bach1 and Bach2, which belong to a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) family, repress target gene expression by forming heterodimers with small Maf proteins. With the ability to bind to heme, Bach1 and Bach2 are important in maintaining heme homeostasis in response to oxidative stress, which is characterized by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and thereby induces cellular damage and senescence. The inactivation of Bach1 exerts an antioxidant effect. Thus, Bach1 may be a potential therapeutic target of oxidative stress-related diseases. Bach2 participates in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and is involved in macrophage-mediated innate immunity as well as the adaptive immune response. Bach1 and Bach2 promote the differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors to B cells by repressing myeloid-related genes. Bach2 is able to regulate class-switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation by altering the concentration of mitochondrial ROS during B cell differentiation. Furthermore, Bach2 maintains T cell homeostasis, influences the function of macrophages, and plays a role in autoimmunity. Bach2-controlling genes with super enhancers in T cells play a key role in immune regulation. However, in spite of new research, the role of Bach1 and Bach2 in immune cells and immune response is not completely clear, nor are their respective roles of in oxidative stress and the immune response, in particular with regard to the clinical phenotypes of autoimmune diseases. The anti-immunosenescence action of Bach and the role of epigenetic modifications of these transcription factors may be important in the mechanism of Bach transcription factors in mediating oxidative stress and cellular immunity.

KEYWORDS:

Bach1; Bach2; Heme; Immunity; Oxidative stress

PMID:
27052415
DOI:
10.1007/s12016-016-8538-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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