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J Diabetes Complications. 2016 Jul;30(5):917-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.02.007. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Teenage girls with type 1 diabetes have poorer metabolic control than boys and face more complications in early adulthood.

Author information

1
Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Paediatrics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
2
Dept. of Paediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
3
Dept. of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
4
Dept. of Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
5
Dept. of Paediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, and Futurum - academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council, Sweden.
6
Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: lena.hanberger@liu.se.

Abstract

AIMS:

To compare metabolic control between males and females with type 1 diabetes during adolescence and as young adults, and relate it to microvascular complications.

METHODS:

Data concerning 4000 adolescents with type 1 diabetes registered in the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry, and above the age of 18years in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry was used.

RESULTS:

When dividing HbA1c values in three groups; < 7.4% (57mmol/mol), 7.4-9.3% (57-78mmol/mol) and >9.3% (78mmol/mol), there was a higher proportion of females in the highest group during adolescence. In the group with the highest HbA1c values during adolescence and as adults, 51.7% were females, expected value 46.2%; in the group with low HbA1c values in both registries, 34.2% were females, p<0.001. As adults, more females had retinopathy, p<0.05. Females had higher mean HbA1c values at diagnosis, 11.2 vs. 10.9% (99 vs. 96mmol/mol), p<0.03, during adolescence, 8.5 vs. 8.2% (69 vs. 66mmol/mol) p<0.01, but not as young adults.

CONCLUSIONS:

Worse glycaemic control was found in adolescent females, and they had a higher frequency of microvascular complications. Improved paediatric diabetes care is of great importance for increasing the likelihood of lower mortality and morbidity later in life.

KEYWORDS:

Gender; HbA1c; Microvascular complications; Quality of care; Type 1 diabetes

PMID:
27052153
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.02.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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