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Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:6757154. doi: 10.1155/2016/6757154. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

Author information

1
Operative Unit of Endocrinology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy.
2
Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy.
3
Institute of Pharmacology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Abstract

Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

PMID:
27051079
PMCID:
PMC4802023
DOI:
10.1155/2016/6757154
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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