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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016 Feb;30(1):3-15. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2016.02.001. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disorders.

Author information

1
New Mexico VA Health Care System, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address: CChang1@salud.unm.edu.
2
New Mexico VA Health Care System, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address: HELin@salud.unm.edu.

Abstract

The recent development of advanced sequencing techniques has revealed the complexity and diverse functions of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, alterations in the composition or balance of the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, are associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. The looming question is whether dysbiosis is a cause or effect of these diseases. In this review, we will evaluate the contribution of intestinal microbiota in obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Promising results from microbiota or metabolite transfer experiments in animals suggest the microbiota may be sufficient to reproduce disease features in the appropriate host in certain disorders. Less compelling causal associations may reflect complex, multi-factorial disease pathogenesis, in which dysbiosis is a necessary condition. Understanding the contributions of the microbiota in GI diseases should offer novel insight into disease pathophysiology and deliver new treatment strategies such as therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota.

KEYWORDS:

Dysbiosis; Inflammatory bowel disease; Irritable bowel syndrome; Metabolomics; Metagenomics; Microbiome; Microbiota; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Obesity

PMID:
27048892
DOI:
10.1016/j.bpg.2016.02.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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