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Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2016 May;16(5):49. doi: 10.1007/s11910-016-0647-4.

Neuropsychiatric Issues in Parkinson's Disease.

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Duke University School of Medicine, 932 Morreene Rd., Durham, NC, 27705, USA.
Duke University School of Medicine, 120a Davison, Durham, NC, 27705, USA.


Cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's Disease and may surpass motor symptoms as the major factors impacting patient quality of life. The symptoms may be broadly separated into those associated with the disease process and those that represent adverse effects of treatment. Symptoms attributed to the disease arise from pathologic changes within multiple brain regions and are not restricted to dysfunction in the dopaminergic system. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and apathy are common and may precede the development of motor symptoms by years, while other neuropsychiatric symptoms such as cognitive impairment, dementia, and psychosis are more common in later stages of the disease. Neuropsychiatric symptoms attributed to treatment include impulse control disorders, pathologic use of dopaminergic medications, and psychosis. This manuscript will review the current understanding of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's Disease.


Cognitive impairment; Depression; Impulse control disorders; Non-motor symptoms; Parkinson’s disease; Psychosis

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