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Vet World. 2015 Jan;8(1):66-71. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.66-71. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India).

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Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Zoonoses, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.



The present study was undertaken to estimate the current status of residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphates (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) pesticides in human blood.


Human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.


The gas chromatographic analysis of human blood samples collected from Punjab revealed the presence of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), p,p' dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), o,p' DDE and β-endosulfan at mean levels of 15.26, 2.71, 5.62 and 4.02 ng/ml, respectively. p,p' DDE residue was observed in 18.0% blood samples, and it contributes 55% of the total pesticide burden in human blood. The difference of total dichlorordiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) between different age groups of humans was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The difference of DDT and endosulfan between dietary habits, gender and spraying of pesticides was found statistically non-significant, however endosulfan residues were observed only in pesticide sprayer's population.


Occurrence of p,p' DDE, p,p' DDD, o,p' DDE in human blood indicated restricted use of DDT. However, presence of endosulfan residues in occupationally exposed population is a matter of public health concern.


Punjab; dichlorordiphenyl trichloroethan; endosulfan; human blood; residues

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