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Nutrients. 2016 Mar 29;8(4):186. doi: 10.3390/nu8040186.

Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

Author information

1
Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. andrea.ticinesi@unipr.it.
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. andrea.ticinesi@unipr.it.
3
Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. tiziana.meschi@unipr.it.
4
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. tiziana.meschi@unipr.it.
5
Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. flauretani@ao.pr.it.
6
Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona 37134, Italy. giovanna.felis@univr.it.
7
Geriatric Unit, "Guglielmo da Saliceto" Hospital, AUSL Piacenza, Via Taverna 49, Piacenza 29121, Italy. f.franchi@ausl.pc.it.
8
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Santa Chiara Hospital, Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Largo Medaglie d'Oro 9, Trento 38122, Italy. carlo.pedrolli@apss.tn.it.
9
Parkinson Institute, Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale "Gaetano Pini"-C.T.O., Via Bignami 1, Milan 20126, Italy. barichella@parkinson.it.
10
Geriatric Unit, Ospedale G.B. Morgagni-L. Pierantoni, Via Carlo Forlanini 34, Forlì 47121, Italy. nutrizione.clinica.fo@auslromagna.it.
11
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. sergio.dinuzzo@unipr.it.
12
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. gianpaolo.ceda@unipr.it.
13
Clinical Geriatrics Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. gianpaolo.ceda@unipr.it.
14
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. marcellomaggio2001@yahoo.it.
15
Clinical Geriatrics Unit, Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, Parma 43126, Italy. marcellomaggio2001@yahoo.it.

Abstract

Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

casein; geriatric; inflammatory markers; omega-3; vitamin D; whey

PMID:
27043616
PMCID:
PMC4848655
DOI:
10.3390/nu8040186
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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