Send to

Choose Destination
Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2016 Apr;49(2):475-87. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2015.10.011.

Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis.

Author information

Division of Oculoplastic Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 150 North Robertson Boulevard, Suite 314, Beverly Hills, CA 90211, USA. Electronic address:


Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink.


Ectropion; Exposure keratopathy; Eyelid retraction; Facial nerve; Facial paralysis; Paralytic lagophthalmos; Synkinesis

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center