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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Jul-Aug;4(4):697-704. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2016.02.008. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Antibiotics Are the Most Commonly Identified Cause of Perioperative Hypersensitivity Reactions.

Author information

1
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address: jameskuhlen@gmail.com.
2
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.
3
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.
4
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.
5
Division of Allergy and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.
6
Department of Anesthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) during the perioperative period are unpredictable and can be life threatening. Prospective studies for the evaluation of perioperative HSRs are lacking, and data on causative agents vary between different studies.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the success of a comprehensive allergy evaluation plan for patients with HSRs during anesthesia, including identification of a causative agent and outcomes during subsequent anesthesia exposure.

METHODS:

All patients referred for a perioperative HSR between November 2013 and March 2015, from a Boston teaching hospital, were evaluated using a standardized protocol with skin testing (ST) within 6 months of HSR. Comprehensive allergy evaluation included collection of patient information, including characteristics of HSR during anesthesia. We reviewed the results of ST and/or test doses for all potential causative medications Event-related tryptase levels were reviewed when available.

RESULTS:

Over 17 months, 25 patients completed the comprehensive allergy evaluation. Fifty-two percent (13 of 25) were female with a median age of 52 (interquartile range 43-66) years. The most frequently observed HSR systems were cutaneous (68%), cardiovascular (64%), and pulmonary (24%). A culprit drug, defined as a positive ST, was identified in 36% (9 of 25) of patients. The most common agent identified was cefazolin (6 of 9). After our comprehensive evaluation and management plan, 7 (7 of 8, 88%) patients tolerated subsequent anesthesia.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cefazolin was the most commonly identified cause of a perioperative HSR in our study population. Skin testing patients within 6 months of a perioperative HSR may improve the odds of finding a positive result. Tolerance of subsequent anesthesia is generally achieved in patients undergoing our comprehensive evaluation.

KEYWORDS:

Allergy; Anaphylaxis; Anesthesia; Cefazolin; Drug; Hypersensitivity; Perioperative; Reaction; Tryptase

PMID:
27039234
PMCID:
PMC4939134
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaip.2016.02.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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