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Environ Pollut. 2016 Jun;213:770-775. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.03.037. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Enantioselective absorption and transformation of a novel chiral neonicotinoid [(14)C]-cycloxaprid in rats.

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Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.
Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China. Electronic address:


Neonicotinoid pesticides caused hazardous effects on pollinators and aquatic ecosystem. The new developed chiral cis-neonicotinoid cycloxaprid(CYC) is a highly potent substitute for low toxicity to bees and high efficiency on target-insects, but little is known about the metabolic dynamics of racemic CYC and its 2 enantiomers(SR and RS) in animal models. In this study, chiral separation of (14)C-labeled racemic CYC was performed in high-performance liquid chromatography under optimal conditions. For the first time that the stereoselectivity of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide CYC was exhibited in rats after single dose oral administration using (14)C-labeled isotope trace technique. Enantioselective behaviors of racemic CYC, SR and RS were observed in blood metabolism, tissue distribution and excretion. The major deposition of (14)C were found in liver, lung, kidney and heart. After 24 h, skin and fat showed a strong bioaccumulation effect, and total excreted urine and feces of CYC, SR and RS were 50.4%, 59.7% and 74.5%, respectively. Enantiomer RS had the fastest absorption and elimination rates, and it was least bioaccumulated in rats. The results provide scientific basis and practical techniques for environmental risk assessment of chiral pesticides, especially neonicotinoids.


(14)C isotope trace; Cycloxaprid; Enantiomers behaviors; Metabolism; Rats

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