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Chemosphere. 2016 Jun;153:521-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.035. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

N-nitrosamine formation by monochloramine, free chlorine, and peracetic acid disinfection with presence of amine precursors in drinking water system.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA; Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS(3)M), USA.
2
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA; Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS(3)M), USA. Electronic address: honglan@mst.edu.
3
Water and Sewer Department, City of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, USA.
4
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA.

Abstract

In this study, the formation of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosomethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine, N-Nitrosopiperidine, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine, N-Nitrosomorpholine, were systematically evaluated with respect to seven N-nitrosamine precursors (dimethylamine, trimethylamine, 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole, 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, ethylmethylamine, diethylamine, dipropylamine) and three disinfectants (monochloramine, free chlorine, peracetic acid) under variable dosages, exposure times, and pH in a drinking water system. Without the presence of the seven selected N-nitrosamine precursors N-nitrosamine formation was not observed under any tested condition except very low levels of N-Nitrosopyrrolidine under some conditions. With selected N-nitrosamine precursors present N-nitrosamines formed at different levels under different conditions. The highest N-nitrosamine formation was NDMA with a maximum concentration of 1180 ng/L by monochloramine disinfection with precursors present; much lower levels of N-nitrosamines were formed by free chlorine disinfection; and no detectable level of N-nitrosamines were observed by peracetic acid disinfection except low level of N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine under some conditions. NDMA formation was not affected by pH while four other N-nitrosamine formations were slightly affected by sample pH tested between 7 and 9, with formation decreasing with increasing pH. Monochloramine exposure time study displayed fast formation of N-nitrosamines, largely formed in four hours of exposure and maximized after seven days. This was a systematic study on the N-nitrosamine formation with the seven major N-nitrosamine precursors presence and absence under different conditions, including peracetic acid disinfection which has not been studied elsewhere.

KEYWORDS:

Drinking water disinfection by peracetic acid; Emerging water disinfection byproducts (DBPs); N-nitrosamine formation; N-nitrosamine precursors; N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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