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Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2016 Apr;26(2):221-227. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2015.12.010. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Lessons Learned from Traditional NOTES: A Historical Perspective.

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Center for Interventional Endoscopy, Florida Hospital Orlando, 601 E. Rollins St, Orlando, Florida 32803, USA. Electronic address:


The idea of natural orifice surgery was conceived by Kantsevoy and Kalloo in the late 1990s. A group of surgeons formed the Apollo Group in 1997. Their vision and mission were to impact the practice of therapeutic endoscopy through innovation in techniques and technologies. The concept of natural orifice surgery was introduced at the initial meeting held on Kiawah Island, South Carolina in 1998. The original concept of flexible endoscopic surgery involved per-oral passage of a flexible endoscope into the stomach followed by entrance into the peritoneal cavity via a gastrostomy.


Natural orifice surgery; Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES); Therapeutic endoscopy; White paper

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