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Vaccine. 2016 Jun 3;34(26):2988-2991. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.079. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Advancing a vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis.

Author information

1
Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development Houston, TX, USA; Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, DC, USA.
2
Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development Houston, TX, USA; Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, DC, USA; National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA. Electronic address: hotez@bcm.edu.
3
Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development Houston, TX, USA; National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
4
Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, DC, USA.
5
Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development Houston, TX, USA; Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, DC, USA; National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA.

Abstract

Several candidate human schistosomiasis vaccines are in different stages of preclinical and clinical development. The major targets are Schistosoma haematobium (urogenitial schistosomiasis) and Schistosoma mansoni (intestinal schistosomiasis) that account for 99% of the world's 252 million cases, with 90% of these cases in Africa. Two recombinant S. mansoni vaccines - Sm-TSP-2 and Sm-14 are in Phase 1 trials, while Smp80 (calpain) is undergoing testing in non-human primates. Sh28GST, also known as Bilhvax is in advanced clinical development for S. haematobium infection. The possibility remains that some of these vaccines may cross-react to target both schistosome species. These vaccines were selected on the basis of their protective immunity in preclinical challenge models, through human immune-epidemiological studies or both. They are being advanced through a combination of academic research institutions, non-profit vaccine product development partnerships, biotechnology companies, and developing country vaccine manufacturers. In addition, new schistosome candidate vaccines are being identified through bioinformatics, OMICs approaches, and moderate throughput screening, although the full potential of reverse vaccinology for schistosomiasis has not yet been realized. The target product profiles of these vaccines vary but many focus on vaccinating children, in some cases following mass treatment with praziquantel, also known as vaccine-linked chemotherapy. Several regulatory pathways have been proposed, some of which rely on World Health Organization prequalification.

KEYWORDS:

Neglected tropical disease; Schistosomiasis; Vaccine

PMID:
27036511
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.079
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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