Format

Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Cancer. 2016 Mar 31;16:257. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2291-4.

Nemo-like kinase as a negative regulator of nuclear receptor Nurr1 gene transcription in prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Sino-American Cancer Research Institute, Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan Scientific Research Center, Guangdong Medical University, 1 Xincheng Road, Dongguan, 523808, China.
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Longgang District Central Hospital of Shenzhen, 1228 Longgang Road, Shenzhen, 518116, China.
3
Department of Biochemistry, Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121001, China. lnmuyangjing@126.com.
4
Sino-American Cancer Research Institute, Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan Scientific Research Center, Guangdong Medical University, 1 Xincheng Road, Dongguan, 523808, China. zhiweihe66832@126.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nurr1, a member of the orphan receptor family, plays an important role in several types of cancer. Our previous work demonstrated that increased expression of Nurr1 plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), though the mechanisms for regulation of Nurr1 expression remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is a key regulator of Nurr1 expression in PCa.

METHODS:

Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate levels of NLK and Nurr1 in prostatic tissues and cell lines. The effects of overexpression or knockdown of Nurr1 were evaluated in PCa cells through use of PCR, Western blots and promoter reporter assays. The role of Nurr1 promoter cis element was studied by creation of two mutant Nurr1 promoter luciferase constructs, one with a mutated NF-κB binding site and one with a mutated CREB binding site. In addition, three specific inhibitors were used to investigate the roles of these proteins in transcriptional activation of Nurr1, including BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), KG-501 (CREB inhibitor) and ICG-001 (CREB binding protein, CBP, inhibitor). The function of CBP in NLK-mediated regulation of Nurr1 expression was investigated using immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIPs).

RESULTS:

NLK expression was inversely correlated with Nurr1 expression in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of NLK suppressed Nurr1 promoter activity, leading to downregulation of Nurr1 expression. In contrast, knockdown of NLK demonstrated opposite results, leading to upregulation of Nurr1. When compared with the wild-type Nurr1 promoter, mutation of NF-κB- and CREB-binding sites of the Nurr1 promoter region significantly reduced the upregulation of Nurr1 induced by knockdown of NLK in LNCaP cells; treatment with inhibitors of CREB, CBP and NF-κB led to similar results. We also found that NLK directly interacts with CBP, that knockdown of NLK significantly increases the recruitment of CBP to both NF-κB- and CREB-binding sites, and that regulation of NLK on Nurr1 expression is abrogated by knockdown of CBP.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that NLK inhibits transcriptional activation of Nurr1 gene by impeding CBP's role as a co-activator of NF-κB and CREB in prostate cancer.

KEYWORDS:

CBP; CREB; NF-κB; NLK; Nurr1; Prostate cancer

PMID:
27036119
PMCID:
PMC4815267
DOI:
10.1186/s12885-016-2291-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center