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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016 Apr 27;8(16):10572-80. doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b11878. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3-Ga2O3 Alloy Coatings for Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode to Improve Rate Performance in Li-Ion Battery.

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Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison , 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.
Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison , 1509 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.
Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison , 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.
The Dow Chemical Company , 1776 building, Midland, Michigan 48674, United States.


Metal oxide coatings can improve the electrochemical stability of cathodes and hence, their cycle-life in rechargeable batteries. However, such coatings often impose an additional electrical and ionic transport resistance to cathode surfaces leading to poor charge-discharge capacity at high C-rates. Here, a mixed oxide (Al2O3)1-x(Ga2O3)x alloy coating, prepared via atomic layer deposition (ALD), on Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 (NMC) cathodes is developed that has increased electron conductivity and demonstrated an improved rate performance in comparison to uncoated NMC. A "co-pulsing" ALD technique was used which allows intimate and controlled ternary mixing of deposited film to obtain nanometer-thick mixed oxide coatings. Co-pulsing allows for independent control over film composition and thickness in contrast to separate sequential pulsing of the metal sources. (Al2O3)1-x(Ga2O3)x alloy coatings were demonstrated to improve the cycle life of the battery. Cycle tests show that increasing Al-content in alloy coatings increases capacity retention; whereas a mixture of compositions near (Al2O3)0.5(Ga2O3)0.5 was found to produce the optimal rate performance.


Al2O3; Ga2O3; Li-ion battery; NMC cathode; atomic layer deposition; coatings


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