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Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2016 Jul;13(7):417-30. doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2016.26. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Treating cancer with selective CDK4/6 inhibitors.

Author information

1
The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK.
2
Division of Haematology/Oncology, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
3
Breast Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ, UK.

Abstract

Uncontrolled cellular proliferation, mediated by dysregulation of the cell-cycle machinery and activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to promote cell-cycle progression, lies at the heart of cancer as a pathological process. Clinical implementation of first-generation, nonselective CDK inhibitors, designed to inhibit this proliferation, was originally hampered by the high risk of toxicity and lack of efficacy noted with these agents. The emergence of a new generation of selective CDK4/6 inhibitors, including ribociclib, abemaciclib and palbociclib, has enabled tumour types in which CDK4/6 has a pivotal role in the G1-to-S-phase cell-cycle transition to be targeted with improved effectiveness, and fewer adverse effects. Results of pivotal phase III trials investigating palbociclib in patients with advanced-stage oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer have demonstrated a substantial improvement in progression-free survival, with a well-tolerated toxicity profile. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors are beginning to emerge that, although unwelcome, might enable rational post-CDK4/6 inhibitor therapeutic strategies to be identified. Extending the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors beyond ER-positive breast cancer is challenging, and will likely require biomarkers that are predictive of a response, and the use of combination therapies in order to optimize CDK4/6 targeting.

PMID:
27030077
DOI:
10.1038/nrclinonc.2016.26
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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