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Arch Environ Occup Health. 2017 Mar 4;72(2):111-122. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2016.1169980. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Is prostate cancer incidence worldwide linked to artificial light at night exposures? Review of earlier findings and analysis of current trends.

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a Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management , Faculty of Management, University of Haifa , Mt. Carmel , Israel.
b The Israeli Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Chronobiology, University of Haifa , Mount Carmel, Haifa , Israel.


Widespread use of artificial light at night (ALAN) might contribute to the global burden of hormone-dependent cancers. Previous attempts to verify this association in population-level studies have been sparse. Using GLOBOCAN, US-DMSP, and World Bank 2010-2012 databases, we studied the association between ALAN and prostate cancer (PC) incidence in 180 countries worldwide, controlling for several country-level confounders. The PC-ALAN association emerged marginally significant when year-2012 PC age-standardized rate data were compared with ALAN levels (t = 1.886, p < .1); this association was more significant (t > 2.7; p < .01) when only 110 countries with well-maintained cancer registries were analyzed. Along with other variables, ALAN explains up to 79% of PC ASR variability. PC-ALAN association appears to vary regionally, with the greatest deviations in Central Africa, Small Island Developing States, Southeast Asia, and Gulf States.


Age standardized incidence rates; artificial light at night (ALAN); circadian disruption; melatonin suppression; regional differences; world countries

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