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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Mar 25;17(4):451. doi: 10.3390/ijms17040451.

Epigenetic Modifications in Essential Hypertension.

Author information

1
Faculty of Science & Technology, Federation University Australia, University Drive, Mount Helen, VIC 3350, Australia. i.wise@federation.edu.au.
2
Faculty of Science & Technology, Federation University Australia, University Drive, Mount Helen, VIC 3350, Australia. f.charchar@federation.edu.au.

Abstract

Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of EH, hypertension remains one of the world's leading public health problems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as important as genetic predisposition in the development of EH. Indeed, a complex and interactive genetic and environmental system exists to determine an individual's risk of EH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes to the regulation of gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling, without involvement of nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification is recognized as an essential process in biology, but is now being investigated for its role in the development of specific pathologic conditions, including EH. Epigenetic research will provide insights into the pathogenesis of blood pressure regulation that cannot be explained by classic Mendelian inheritance. This review concentrates on epigenetic modifications to DNA structure, including the influence of non-coding RNAs on hypertension development.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; epigenetics; essential hypertension; histone modifications; microRNAs; non-coding RNA

PMID:
27023534
PMCID:
PMC4848907
DOI:
10.3390/ijms17040451
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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