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J Dent Res. 2016 Jul;95(8):897-905. doi: 10.1177/0022034516641276. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Sequential Changes in Cortical Excitation during Orthodontic Treatment.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Department of Orthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Division of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Research, Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Orthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Division of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Research, Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Division of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Research, Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Molecular Imaging Research Center, RIKEN, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan kobayashi.masayuki@nihon-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

Cortical excitation responding to periodontal ligament (PDL) stimulation is observed in the rat primary somatosensory (S1), secondary somatosensory, and insular oral region of the cortex (S2/IOR), which are considered to process somatosensation, including nociception. Our previous studies have demonstrated that excitatory propagation induced by PDL stimulation is facilitated in S1 and S2/IOR 1 d after experimental tooth movement (ETM), and tetanic stimulation of IOR induces long-term potentiation of cortical excitatory propagation consistently. These findings raise the possibility that ETM induces neuroplastic changes, and as a result, facilitation of cortical excitation would be sustained for weeks. However, no information is available about the temporal profiles of the facilitated cortical responses. We estimated PDL stimulation-induced cortical excitatory propagation in S1 and S2/IOR of rats by optical imaging 1 to 7 d after ETM of the maxillary first molar. ETM models showed facilitated cortical excitatory propagation in comparison with controls and sham groups 1 d after ETM, but the facilitation gradually recovered to the control level 3 to 7 d after ETM. Sham groups that received wire fixation without orthodontic force tended to enhance cortical responses, although the differences between controls and sham groups were almost insignificant. We also examined the relationship between cortical responses and expression of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in PDL of the first molar. The peak amplitude of optical signals responding to PDL stimulation tended to be increased in parallel to the number of IL-1β and TNF-α immunopositive cells, suggesting that, at least in part, the enhancement of cortical responses is induced by PDL inflammation. These findings suggest that ETM-induced facilitation of cortical excitatory propagation responding to PDL stimulation 1 d after ETM recovers to the control level within a week. The time course of the facilitated cortical responses is comparable to that of pain and discomfort induced by clinical orthodontic treatments.

KEYWORDS:

inflammation; nervous system; neuroscience; orthodontic tooth movement; pain; periodontal ligament

PMID:
27021255
DOI:
10.1177/0022034516641276
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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