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World J Methodol. 2016 Mar 26;6(1):25-42. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v6.i1.25. eCollection 2016 Mar 26.

Clinical development of reovirus for cancer therapy: An oncolytic virus with immune-mediated antitumor activity.

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1
Jun Gong, Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, United States.

Abstract

Reovirus is a double-stranded RNA virus with demonstrated oncolysis or preferential replication in cancer cells. The oncolytic properties of reovirus appear to be dependent, in part, on activated Ras signaling. In addition, Ras-transformation promotes reovirus oncolysis by affecting several steps of the viral life cycle. Reovirus-mediated immune responses can present barriers to tumor targeting, serve protective functions against reovirus systemic toxicity, and contribute to therapeutic efficacy through antitumor immune-mediated effects via innate and adaptive responses. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the broad anticancer activity of wild-type, unmodified type 3 Dearing strain reovirus (Reolysin(®)) across a spectrum of malignancies. The development of reovirus as an anticancer agent and available clinical data reported from 22 clinical trials will be reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

Clinical trial; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Immune modulation; Oncolytic virus; Preclinical; Ras; Reovirus; Type 3 Dearing

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