Send to

Choose Destination
Rhinology. 2016 Jun;54(2):170-5. doi: 10.4193/Rhin15.264.

Long term effects of olfactory training in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss.

Author information

Smell and Taste Clinic, 2nd Academic ORL Department, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.



There is evidence of the effectiveness of repeated exposure to odours on short-term olfactory function. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of olfactory training.


We conducted a prospective study of 111 patients with post-infectious olfactory dysfunction. Two groups of patients performed olfactory training for 16 and 56 weeks, respectively, and were compared with a control group. The training was performed twice daily using four odours (phenyl ethyl alcohol, eucalyptol, citronellal, eugenol). Olfactory testing was performed by means of the Sniffin Sticks test as a baseline assessment and then every 8 weeks for 56 weeks. Subjective ratings were performed using a visual analogue scale (0-100).


Both training groups presented significantly higher scores than the controls. The long-term group had better results than the short-term group. Short-term training patients sustained their improvement within the follow-up period. Subsets analysis showed that training patients mainly increased identification and discrimination. Subjective ratings were in accordance with the olfactory test results.


Long-term olfactory training seems to be associated with better results in patients with post-infectious olfactory loss than a short-term scheme. Short-term training provides sustainable results at 56 weeks follow-up assessment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for International Rhinologic Society
Loading ...
Support Center