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Virology. 2016 Jun;493:86-99. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.03.010. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

HIV-1 adaptation to low levels of CCR5 results in V3 and V2 loop changes that increase envelope pathogenicity, CCR5 affinity and decrease susceptibility to Maraviroc.

Author information

1
Center of Emphasis in Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX 79905, United States.
2
Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore.
3
Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
4
Center of Emphasis in Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX 79905, United States. Electronic address: anjali.joshi@ttuhsc.edu.

Abstract

Variability in CCR5 levels in the human population is suggested to affect virus evolution, fitness and the course of HIV disease. We previously demonstrated that cell surface CCR5 levels directly affect HIV Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis. In this study, we attempted to understand HIV evolution in the presence of low levels of CCR5, mimicking the limiting CCR5 levels inherent to the host. HIV-1 adaptation in a T cell line expressing low levels of CCR5 resulted in two specific mutations; N302Y and E172K. The N302Y mutation led to accelerated virus replication, increase in Maraviroc IC50 and an increase in Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis in low CCR5 expressing cells. Analysis of subtype B sequences showed that N302Y is over-represented in CXCR4 tropic viruses in comparison to CCR5 tropic isolates. Considering the variability in CCR5 levels between individuals, our findings have implications for virus evolution, MVC susceptibility as well as HIV pathogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; CCR5; Co-receptor; Envelope; HIV; Maraviroc; Virus evolution

PMID:
27017055
DOI:
10.1016/j.virol.2016.03.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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