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J Environ Sci Health B. 2016;51(6):402-34. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2016.1142748. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

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a Center for Epidemiology and Computational Biology, Health Sciences Practice, Exponent, Inc. , Menlo Park, California and Alexandria , Virginia , USA.
b Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , California , USA.


This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC.


Glyphosate; Hodgkin lymphoma; hematologic malignancies; herbicides; leukemia; meta-analysis; multiple myeloma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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