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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 May;101(5):2113-21. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-3874. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

The p.Leu167del Mutation in APOE Gene Causes Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia by Down-regulation of LDL Receptor Expression in Hepatocytes.

Author information

1
Unidad Clínica y de Investigación en Lípidos y Arteriosclerosis (A.C., I.d.C.-O., A.M.B., R.M.-G., F.C.), Laboratorio de Investigación Molecular, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain; Unidad de Biofísica (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea) and Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular (A.E., A.B.-V., H.O., C.M.), Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao, Spain; Progenika Biopharma (M.S., L.P.), a Grifols Company, Derio, Spain; and Departamento de Anatomía (T.T.), Embriología y Genética, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

The p.Leu167del mutation in the APOE gene has been associated with hyperlipidemia.

OBJECTIVES:

Our objective was to determine the frequency of p.Leu167del mutation in APOE gene in subjects with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) in whom LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 mutations had been excluded and to identify the mechanisms by which this mutant apo E causes hypercholesterolemia.

DESIGN:

The APOE gene was analyzed in a case-control study.

SETTING:

The study was conducted at a University Hospital Lipid Clinic.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:

Two groups (ADH, 288 patients; control, 220 normolipidemic subjects) were included.

INTERVENTION:

We performed sequencing of APOE gene and proteomic and cellular experiments.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

To determine the frequency of the p.Leu167del mutation and the mechanism by which it causes hypercholesterolemia.

RESULTS:

In the ADH group, nine subjects (3.1%) were carriers of the APOE c.500_502delTCC, p.Leu167del mutation, cosegregating with hypercholesterolemia in studied families. Proteomic quantification of wild-type and mutant apo E in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) from carrier subjects revealed that apo E3 is almost a 5-fold increase compared to mutant apo E. Cultured cell studies revealed that VLDL from mutation carriers had a significantly higher uptake by HepG2 and THP-1 cells compared to VLDL from subjects with E3/E3 or E2/E2 genotypes. Transcriptional down-regulation of LDLR was also confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS:

p.Leu167del mutation in APOE gene is the cause of hypercholesterolemia in the 3.1% of our ADH subjects without LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 mutations. The mechanism by which this mutation is associated to ADH is that VLDL carrying the mutant apo E produces LDLR down-regulation, thereby raising plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

PMID:
27014949
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2015-3874
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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