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Trends Microbiol. 2016 Jun;24(6):490-502. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.03.003. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

Author information

1
Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunity of Jiangsu Province, Institute of immunology and College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address: shuosu@njau.edu.cn.
2
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS Center for Influenza Research and Early-Warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
3
Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian, China.
4
CAS Center for Influenza Research and Early-Warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing, China.
5
Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky, USA.
6
Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunity of Jiangsu Province, Institute of immunology and College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
7
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS Center for Influenza Research and Early-Warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
8
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS Center for Influenza Research and Early-Warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address: beeyh@im.ac.cn.
9
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS Center for Influenza Research and Early-Warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Medical School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address: gaof@im.ac.cn.

Abstract

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans.

KEYWORDS:

MERS; SARS; coronavirus; evolution; pathogenesis; recombination

PMID:
27012512
DOI:
10.1016/j.tim.2016.03.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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