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Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17198. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

β-Arrestin biosensors reveal a rapid, receptor-dependent activation/deactivation cycle.

Author information

1
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany.
2
Rudolf Virchow Center, University of Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany.
3
Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany.
4
Molecular Pharmacology Group, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.
5
MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.

Abstract

(β-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) β-arrestin proteins (β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (β-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of β-arrestin with GPCRs, and the β-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based β-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in β-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-β-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and β-arrestins. They further indicate that β-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of β-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.

PMID:
27007855
PMCID:
PMC5157050
DOI:
10.1038/nature17198
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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