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Vaccine. 2016 Apr 27;34(19):2197-206. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.018. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Modeling the economic and epidemiologic impact of hookworm vaccine and mass drug administration (MDA) in Brazil, a high transmission setting.

Author information

1
Public Health Computational and Operational Research (PHICOR), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Global Obesity Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
2
National School of Tropical Medicine, and Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, BCM113, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Sabin Vaccine Institute, 2000 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA.
3
Sabin Vaccine Institute, 2000 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.
4
Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 300S Craig St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
5
Public Health Computational and Operational Research (PHICOR), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Global Obesity Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address: brucelee@jhu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although mass drug administration (MDA) has helped reduce morbidity attributed to soil-transmitted helminth infections in children, its limitations for hookworm infection have motivated the development of a human hookworm vaccine to both improve morbidity control and ultimately help block hookworm transmission leading to elimination. However, the potential economic and epidemiologic impact of a preventive vaccine has not been fully evaluated.

METHODS:

We developed a dynamic compartment model coupled to a clinical and economics outcomes model representing both the human and hookworm populations in a high transmission region of Brazil. Experiments simulated different implementation scenarios of MDA and vaccination under varying circumstances.

RESULTS:

Considering only intervention costs, both annual MDA and vaccination were highly cost-effective (ICERs ≤ $790/DALY averted) compared to no intervention, with vaccination resulting in lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs ≤ $444/DALY averted). From the societal perspective, vaccination was economically dominant (i.e., less costly and more effective) versus annual MDA in all tested scenarios, except when vaccination was less efficacious (20% efficacy, 5 year duration) and MDA coverage was 75%. Increasing the vaccine's duration of protection and efficacy, and including a booster injection in adulthood all increased the benefits of vaccination (i.e., resulted in lower hookworm prevalence, averted more disability-adjusted life years, and saved more costs). Assuming its target product profile, a pediatric hookworm vaccine drastically decreased hookworm prevalence in children to 14.6% after 20 years, compared to 57.2% with no intervention and 54.1% with MDA. The addition of a booster in adulthood further reduced the overall prevalence from 68.0% to 36.0% and nearly eliminated hookworm infection in children.

CONCLUSION:

Using a human hookworm vaccine would be cost-effective and in many cases economically dominant, providing both health benefits and cost-savings. It could become a key technology in effecting control and elimination efforts for hookworm globally.

KEYWORDS:

Cost; Drug treatment; Economics; Hookworm; Transmission; Vaccine

PMID:
27002501
PMCID:
PMC5547742
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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