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Jpn J Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 22;69(6):493-499. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

High Rates of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections and Uncommon HBV Genotype/Subtype and HCV Subtype Distributions among Transgender Individuals in Surabaya, Indonesia.

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Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University.


Transgender people are at a high risk for sexually transmitted viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, Indonesia has a moderate-to-high rate of HBV infection and rapid epidemic growth of HIV infection; hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can co-occur with HBV and HIV infections. In this study, 10 of 107 individuals (9.3%) were positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or HBV DNA, whereas 19 of 101 individuals (18.8%) with negative results for HBsAg were positive for HBV core antibody (anti-HBc). Seven of the 107 individuals (6.5%) were anti-HCV positive, and 16 of the 100 tested samples (16.0%) were HIV positive. Genotype and subtype analyses of all 10 HBV DNA (6 HBsAg positive and 4 anti-HBc positive) strains showed that 3 were of the HBV genotype/HBsAg subtype C/adrq+, one was of C/adw2, and 5 were of B/adw2. The HCV subtype distribution showed that 33.3% were of HCV-1b, and 66.7% were of HCV-3k (n = 6). These distributions differed from those found in the general population of Surabaya, Indonesia. Interestingly, HIV subtype analysis showed a high prevalence of HIV, with possible recombinants of CRF01_AE and subtype B.

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