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Nat Nanotechnol. 2016 Jun;11(6):566-572. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2016.38. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy.

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Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea.
MC10, 10 Maguire Rd., Lexington, Massachusetts 02140, USA.
Center for Mechanics of Solids, Structures and Materials, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 210 E 24th Street, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.
Department of Anatomy, Neuroscience Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea.
Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Republic of Korea.
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Gyeonggi-do 443-270, Republic of Korea.


Owing to its high carrier mobility, conductivity, flexibility and optical transparency, graphene is a versatile material in micro- and macroelectronics. However, the low density of electrochemically active defects in graphene synthesized by chemical vapour deposition limits its application in biosensing. Here, we show that graphene doped with gold and combined with a gold mesh has improved electrochemical activity over bare graphene, sufficient to form a wearable patch for sweat-based diabetes monitoring and feedback therapy. The stretchable device features a serpentine bilayer of gold mesh and gold-doped graphene that forms an efficient electrochemical interface for the stable transfer of electrical signals. The patch consists of a heater, temperature, humidity, glucose and pH sensors and polymeric microneedles that can be thermally activated to deliver drugs transcutaneously. We show that the patch can be thermally actuated to deliver Metformin and reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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