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Nat Med. 2016 Apr;22(4):362-8. doi: 10.1038/nm.4063. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Early short-term treatment with neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies halts SHIV infection in infant macaques.

Author information

1
Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.
2
Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.
3
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
4
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major objective where antenatal care is not readily accessible. We tested HIV-1-specific human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs) as a post-exposure therapy in an infant macaque model for intrapartum MTCT. One-month-old rhesus macaques were inoculated orally with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162P3. On days 1, 4, 7 and 10 after virus exposure, we injected animals subcutaneously with NmAbs and quantified systemic distribution of NmAbs in multiple tissues within 24 h after antibody administration. Replicating virus was found in multiple tissues by day 1 in animals that were not treated. All NmAb-treated macaques were free of virus in blood and tissues at 6 months after exposure. We detected no anti-SHIV T cell responses in blood or tissues at necropsy, and no virus emerged after CD8(+) T cell depletion. These results suggest that early passive immunotherapy can eliminate early viral foci and thereby prevent the establishment of viral reservoirs.

PMID:
26998834
PMCID:
PMC4983100
DOI:
10.1038/nm.4063
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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