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Neurourol Urodyn. 2017 Mar;36(3):687-691. doi: 10.1002/nau.22996. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Patient characteristics for different therapeutic strategies in the management ketamine cystitis.

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Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, Michigan.



Long-term ketamine abuse results in severely inflamed bladder and intractable bladder pain. Currently there is no guideline for clinician to follow how to manage patients with ketamine cystitis (KC). This study analyzed the KC patient characteristics between who received conservative management and augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE).


A total of 53 patients with chronic ketamine abuse and lower urinary tract symptoms were included in this study. All of the patients have been initially treated conservatively but fail. They were admitted for detailed urological examinations. Patients were classified according to their maximal bladder capacity (MBC). The patients with extremely small MBC (<100 ml) with or without upper urinary tract damage and very small MBC with upper urinary tract damage were recommended to receive AE. The patient characteristics and treatment outcome are compared between patients with AE and conservative treatment.


Among them, 28 patients underwent AE and 25 were managed with conservative treatment. The only significant difference between groups was more patients with urgency urinary incontinence underwent AE. Patients underwent AE had significantly smaller MBC, thicker bladder wall, and higher incidence of vesicoureteral reflux. Patients underwent AE reported a good outcome. Most of patients received conservative treatment had a fair result.


KC patients who already developed a contracted bladder with extremely small bladder capacity (<300 ml) with irreversible urinary tract change, partial cystectomy, and AE seems necessary for early restoration of a normal lower urinary tract function. The treatment outcome of AE is better than patients with conservative treatment. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:687-691, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


bladder pain; drug abuse; ketamine; pelvic pain; surgery

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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