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Psychol Med. 2016 Jun;46(8):1613-23. doi: 10.1017/S0033291715002081. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Somatic, positive and negative domains of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.

Author information

1
Genetic Epidemiology Unit,Departments of Epidemiology and Clinical Genetics,Erasmus MC,Rotterdam,The Netherlands.
2
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
3
Department of Epidemiology,Erasmus MC,Rotterdam,The Netherlands.
4
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics,Karolinska Institute,Stockholm,Sweden.
5
Department of Biostatistics,Boston University School of Public Health,Boston, MA,USA.
6
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health,Baltimore, MD,USA.
7
Laboratory of Neurogenetics,National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health,Bethesda, MD,USA.
8
Houston Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas,Houston, TX,USA.
9
Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster,Münster,Germany.
10
Channing Division of Network Medicine,Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School,Boston, MA,USA.
11
Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM),National Institute for Health and Welfare,Helsinki,Finland.
12
Department of Neurological Sciences,Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center,Chicago,IL,USA.
13
Department of Epidemiology,University of Michigan,Ann Arbor,MI,USA.
14
University of Exeter Medical School,Exeter,UK.
15
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus,Cambridge,UK.
16
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health,School of Medicine, Creighton University,Omaha,NE,USA.
17
Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan,Ann Arbor,MI,USA.
18
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, CNR,Monserrato,Cagliari,Italy.
19
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention,National Institute for Health and Welfare,Helsinki,Finland.
20
Departments of Psychiatry,University of California,San Francisco, CA,USA.
21
Center for Human Genomics, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard,Winston-Salem,NC,USA.
22
Geriatrics & Gerontology, Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University,Primate Center, Epidemiology & Prevention,Winston-Salem,NC,USA.
23
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
24
National Institute for Health and Welfare,Helsinki,Finland.
25
Department of Epidemiology,Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University,New York,NY,USA.
26
Department of Medicine,University of Mississippi Medical Center,Jackson,MS,USA.
27
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry,National Institute on Ageing, National Institutes of Health,Bethesda,MD,USA.
28
Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine,Boston University School of Medicine,Boston,MA,USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.

METHOD:

We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).

RESULTS:

One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (p discovery = 3.82 × 10-8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (p discovery+replication = 1.10 × 10-6) with evidence of heterogeneity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.

KEYWORDS:

Genome-wide association studies; major depressive disorder; meta-analyses

PMID:
26997408
PMCID:
PMC5812462
DOI:
10.1017/S0033291715002081
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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