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Cell Stem Cell. 2016 May 5;18(5):637-52. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.01.024. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells.

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Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
The Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:


Divergent lncRNAs that are transcribed in the opposite direction to nearby protein-coding genes comprise a significant proportion (∼20%) of total lncRNAs in mammalian genomes. Through genome-wide analysis, we found that the distribution of this lncRNA class strongly correlates with essential developmental regulatory genes. In pluripotent cells, divergent lncRNAs regulate the transcription of nearby genes. As an example, the divergent lncRNA Evx1as promotes transcription of its neighbor gene, EVX1, and regulates mesendodermal differentiation. At a single-cell level, early broad expression of Evx1as is followed by a rapid, high-level transcription of EVX1, supporting the idea that Evx1as plays an upstream role to facilitate EVX1 transcription. Mechanistically, Evx1as RNA binds to regulatory sites on chromatin, promotes an active chromatin state, and interacts with Mediator. Based on our analyses, we propose that the biological function of thousands of uncharacterized lncRNAs of this class may be inferred from the role of their neighboring adjacent genes.


ESCs; Evx1as; development; divergent lncRNA; transcription regulation

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