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Toxicon. 2016 Jul;117:49-52. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.03.013. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Bradykinin in Hemipepsis ustulata: A novel method for safely milking wasps.

Author information

1
Western New Mexico University, Department of Chemistry, 1000 W. College Ave, Silver City, NM 88061, USA. Electronic address: whites7@wnmu.edu.
2
Western New Mexico University, Department of Chemistry, 1000 W. College Ave, Silver City, NM 88061, USA. Electronic address: samuelk@wnmu.edu.

Abstract

Wasp venom characterization is of interest across multiple disciplines such as medicinal chemistry and evolutionary biology. A simple method is described herein to milk wasp venom without undue risks to the researcher. The wasps were immobilized by cooling for safe handling, restrained, and their venom was collected on parafilm. Bradykinin from Hemipepsis ustulata was identified by LC-MS/MS during method verification.

KEYWORDS:

Bradykinin; Hemipepsis ustulata; LC-MS/MS; Milking; Venom; Wasp

PMID:
26996494
PMCID:
PMC4902793
DOI:
10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.03.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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