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Bioresour Technol. 2016 Sep;215:334-345. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.03.018. Epub 2016 Mar 12.

Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects.

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Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, SE 50190 Borås, Sweden.
Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, SE 50190 Borås, Sweden. Electronic address:


Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues.


Ascomycetes; Biomass; Enzymes; Metabolites; Waste biorefinery

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