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J Optom. 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):219-30. doi: 10.1016/j.optom.2016.01.005. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Bilateral symmetry in vision and influence of ocular surgical procedures on binocular vision: A topical review.

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Research and Development, SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany. Electronic address:
Research and Development, SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany.


We analyze the role of bilateral symmetry in enhancing binocular visual ability in human eyes, and further explore how efficiently bilateral symmetry is preserved in different ocular surgical procedures. The inclusion criterion for this review was strict relevance to the clinical questions under research. Enantiomorphism has been reported in lower order aberrations, higher order aberrations and cone directionality. When contrast differs in the two eyes, binocular acuity is better than monocular acuity of the eye that receives higher contrast. Anisometropia has an uncommon occurrence in large populations. Anisometropia seen in infancy and childhood is transitory and of little consequence for the visual acuity. Binocular summation of contrast signals declines with age, independent of inter-ocular differences. The symmetric associations between the right and left eye could be explained by the symmetry in pupil offset and visual axis which is always nasal in both eyes. Binocular summation mitigates poor visual performance under low luminance conditions and strong inter-ocular disparity detrimentally affects binocular summation. Considerable symmetry of response exists in fellow eyes of patients undergoing myopic PRK and LASIK, however the method to determine whether or not symmetry is maintained consist of comparing individual terms in a variety of ad hoc ways both before and after the refractive surgery, ignoring the fact that retinal image quality for any individual is based on the sum of all terms. The analysis of bilateral symmetry should be related to the patients' binocular vision status. The role of aberrations in monocular and binocular vision needs further investigation.


Bilateral symmetry; Binocular fusion; Binocular summation; Dominancia ocular; Estereopsis; Eye dominance; Fusión binocular; Simetría bilateral; Stereopsis; Sumación binocular

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