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Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2016 Apr;299(4):412-20. doi: 10.1002/ar.23313. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Cranial Suture Closure in Domestic Dog Breeds and Its Relationships to Skull Morphology.

Author information

1
Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich, Karl-Schmid-Strasse 4, Zürich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Bulldog-type brachycephalic domestic dog breeds are characterized by a relatively short and broad skull with a dorsally rotated rostrum (airorhynchy). Not much is known about the association between a bulldog-type skull conformation and peculiar patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure in domestic dogs. In this study, we aim to explore breed-specific patterns of cranial suture and synchondrosis closure in relation to the prebasial angle (proxy for airorhynchy and thus bulldog-type skull conformation) in domestic dogs. For this purpose, we coded closure of 18 sutures and synchondroses in 26 wolves, that is, the wild ancestor of all domestic dogs, and 134 domestic dogs comprising 11 breeds. Comparisons of the relative amount of closing and closed sutures and synchondroses (closure scores) in adult individuals showed that bulldog-type breeds have significantly higher closure scores than non-bulldog-type breeds and that domestic dogs have significantly higher closure scores than the wolf. We further found that the prebasial angle is significantly positively correlated with the amount of closure of the basispheno-presphenoid synchondrosis and sutures of the nose (premaxillo-nasal and maxillo-nasal) and the palate (premaxillo-maxillary and interpalatine). Our results show that there is a correlation between patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure and skull shape in domestic dogs, although the causal relationships remain elusive.

KEYWORDS:

airorhynchy; brachycephaly; fusion; synchondroses; wolf

PMID:
26995336
DOI:
10.1002/ar.23313
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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