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Alcohol. 2016 Mar;51:17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.11.010. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Effect of different stressors on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and nondependent C57BL/6J mice.

Author information

1
Charleston Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Electronic address: lopezm@musc.edu.
2
Charleston Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
3
Charleston Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA; Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA; RHJ Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Abstract

Several animal models have evaluated the effect of stress on voluntary ethanol intake with mixed results. The experiments reported here examined the effects of different stressors on voluntary ethanol consumption in dependent and nondependent adult male C57BL/6J mice. In Experiment 1, restraint, forced swim, and social defeat stress procedures all tended to reduce ethanol intake in nondependent mice regardless of whether the stress experience occurred 1 h or 4 h prior to ethanol access. The reduction in ethanol consumption was most robust following restraint stress. Experiment 2 examined the effects of forced swim stress and social defeat stress on drinking in a dependence model that involved repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Repeated exposure to forced swim stress prior to intervening test drinking periods that followed repeated cycles of CIE exposure further increased ethanol consumption in CIE-exposed mice while not altering intake in nondependent mice. In contrast, repeated exposure to the social defeat stressor in a similar manner reduced ethanol consumption in CIE-exposed mice while not altering drinking in nondependent mice. Results from Experiment 3 confirmed this selective effect of forced swim stress increasing ethanol consumption in mice with a history of CIE exposure, and also demonstrated that enhanced drinking is only observed when the forced swim stressor is administered during each test drinking week, but not if it is applied only during the final test week. Collectively, these studies point to a unique interaction between repeated stress experience and CIE exposure, and also suggest that such an effect depends on the nature of the stressor. Future studies will need to further explore the generalizability of these results, as well as mechanisms underlying the ability of forced swim stress to selectively further enhance ethanol consumption in dependent (CIE-exposed) mice but not alter intake in nondependent animals.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Ethanol dependence; Mice; Stress

PMID:
26992696
PMCID:
PMC4799834
[Available on 2017-03-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.11.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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