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Dev Biol. 2016 Nov 1;419(1):114-120. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.03.018. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Live confocal imaging of Arabidopsis flower buds.

Author information

1
Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Electronic address: nprunet@caltech.edu.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, 78 N. College St., Hanover, NH 03755, USA.
3
Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

Abstract

Recent advances in confocal microscopy, coupled with the development of numerous fluorescent reporters, provide us with a powerful tool to study the development of plants. Live confocal imaging has been used extensively to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of roots, shoots and leaves. However, it has not been widely applied to flowers, partly because of specific challenges associated with the imaging of flower buds. Here, we describe how to prepare and grow shoot apices of Arabidopsis in vitro, to perform both single-point and time-lapse imaging of live, developing flower buds with either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope.

KEYWORDS:

Confocal microscopy; Floral organs; Flower; Flower development; Flower meristem; Live confocal imaging; Plant development; Sepals

PMID:
26992363
PMCID:
PMC5025338
DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.03.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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